Laravel in Kubernetes Part 5 - Deploying a database for our application

Laravel in Kubernetes Part 5 - Deploying a database for our application

Deploying a database for our application can be quite a challenge.

On one hand, using a managed database makes sense from a management perspective, but might be a bit more expensive than running it ourselves.

On the other hand, running it ourselves comes with a whole array of possible maintenance issues like Storage, Backups and Restoration.

Also introducing Storage into our Kubernetes cluster makes it quite a bit more management, especially for production critical loads.

In this post we will cover both options

TLDR - Laravel in Kubernetes Part 5
Laravel in Kubernetes Part 5. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets.

Table of contents

Managed Database

The easiest to manage, if you are willing to fork out a couple more bucks, is a managed database.

Most Cloud providers offer managed databases, including DigitalOcean on which this series is built.

We are going to use Mysql in this post, as it is the most used option IMO for Laravel.

You are welcome to switch this out for Postgres if you are so inclined.

In the Infrastructure repository we created, we can add a new file called where we can define the configuration for our DigitalOcean Managed database.

# Define some constant values for the different versions of DigitalOcean databases
locals {
  mysql = {
    engine = "mysql"
    version = "8"
  postgres = {
    engine = "pg"
    version = "13" # Available options: 10 | 11 | 12 | 13

# We need to create a database cluster in DigitalOcean,
# based on Mysql 8, which is the version DigitalOcean provides.
# You can switch this out for Postgres by changing the `locals.` pointer to point at postgres.
resource "digitalocean_database_cluster" "laravel-in-kubernetes" {
  name = "laravel-in-kubernetes"
  engine = local.mysql.engine # Replace with `locals.postgres.engine` if using postgres
  version = local.mysql.version # Replace with `locals.postgres.version` if using postgres
  size = "db-s-1vcpu-1gb"
  region = var.do_region
  node_count = 1

# We want to create a separate database for our application inside the database cluster.
# This way we can share the cluster resources, but have multiple separate databases.
resource "digitalocean_database_db" "laravel-in-kubernetes" {
  cluster_id =
  name = "laravel-in-kubernetes"

# We want to create a separate user for our application,
# So we can limit access if necessary
# We also use Native Password auth, as it works better with current Laravel versions
resource "digitalocean_database_user" "laravel-in-kubernetes" {
  cluster_id =
  name = "laravel-in-kubernetes"
  mysql_auth_plugin = "mysql_native_password"

# We want to allow access to the database from our Kubernetes cluster
# We can also add custom IP addresses
# If you would like to connect from your local machine,
# simply add your public IP
resource "digitalocean_database_firewall" "laravel-in-kubernetes" {
  cluster_id =

  rule {
    type  = "k8s"
    value =

#   rule {
#     type  = "ip_addr"
#   }

# We also need to add outputs for the database, to easily be able to reach it.

# Expose the host of the database so we can easily use that when connecting to it.
output "laravel-in-kubernetes-database-host" {
  value =

# Expose the port of the database, as it is usually different from the default ports of Mysql / Postgres
output "laravel-in-kubernetes-database-port" {
  value = digitalocean_database_cluster.laravel-in-kubernetes.port

Once we apply that, it might take some time to create the database, but Terraform will pump out a database host and port for us.

$ terraform apply 
Apply complete! Resources: 3 added, 0 changed, 0 destroyed.


laravel-in-kubernetes-database-host = "XXX"
laravel-in-kubernetes-database-port = 25060

You will now see your database host and port.


But what about the username and password ?

We could fetch these from Terraform directly using the digitalocean_database_user.laravel-in-kubernetes.password attribute like here. The problem with this is that the password will be stored in Terraform state, and anyone who has the state will be able to access this value, which compromises your database.

What we want to be doing is to create the initial user, with a initial password, and then change that outside of Terraform.

There are other solutions to this such as Key Stores provided by Cloud providers, which can be used with the External Secrets Operator to provide these seamlessly in Kubernetes.

For the moment though, we will use the DigitalOcean UI, to regenerate the password, and use that outside of Terraform for the future.

In the DigitalOcean UI, you can regenerate the password, and store it to use in the next steps.

Laravel Changes

When using a default DigitalOcean Managed Database install for our application, we need to make one change to our actual code base.

Laravel migrations will fail with an error for not allowing tables without Primary Keys such as

Migrating: 2014_10_12_100000_create_password_resets_table

In Connection.php line 692:
  SQLSTATE[HY000]: General error: 3750 Unable to create or change a table wit  
  hout a primary key, when the system variable 'sql_require_primary_key' is s  
  et. Add a primary key to the table or unset this variable to avoid this mes  
  sage. Note that tables without a primary key can cause performance problems  
   in row-based replication, so please consult your DBA before changing this   
  setting. (SQL: create table `password_resets` (`email` varchar(255) not nul  
  l, `token` varchar(255) not null, `created_at` timestamp null) default char  
  acter set utf8mb4 collate 'utf8mb4_unicode_ci')                              

In Connection.php line 485:
  SQLSTATE[HY000]: General error: 3750 Unable to create or change a table wit  
  hout a primary key, when the system variable 'sql_require_primary_key' is s  
  et. Add a primary key to the table or unset this variable to avoid this mes  
  sage. Note that tables without a primary key can cause performance problems  
   in row-based replication, so please consult your DBA before changing this   

To get around this error, we can switch off the primary key constraint.

It's advisable to add primary keys for your tables, but if you have an existing application, it might be a better idea to switch off first, then add primary keys later, depending on your specific case.

The way I like to do this is by adding a specific statement which catches migration events, and then switches off the primary key constraints.

In app/Providers/AppServiceProvider.php, add a the following to the register method

use Illuminate\Database\Events\MigrationsEnded;
use Illuminate\Database\Events\MigrationsStarted;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\DB;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Event;

 * Register any application services.
 * @return void
public function register()
    Event::listen(MigrationsStarted::class, function () {
        DB::statement('SET SESSION sql_require_primary_key=0');
    Event::listen(MigrationsEnded::class, function () {
        DB::statement('SET SESSION sql_require_primary_key=1');

Once we've have done this, we can commit the new fix, and rebuild both our application containers so they contain the new code updates

// Commit the fix
$ git add app/Providers/AppServiceProvider.php
$ git commit -m "Disable Primary Key check for migrations"

// Rebuild our container images
$ make docker-build

// Lastly push up the new container images to our registry
$ make docker-push

When we now run migrations against the managed database, everything should work.

In the next step, we will start deploying our application and run migrations on startup.

Self-managed database

If you would like to use your own database running in Kubernetes, you can of course do this.

For running a database in Kubernetes there are a few things to keep in mind

  • Database maintenance such as backups, upgrades, security etc.
  • Persistence. You're probably going to need some persistence so your data remains stable throughout upgrades and updates.
  • Scalability. Running a distributed database with separated write & read replicas could become quite difficult to manage. As a starting point you will not need to scale your database this way, but in future you might

All of this taken into account, we will deploy a MySQL 8 database inside of Kubernetes with persistence to DigitalOcean, and a manual backup and restore strategy. We won't cover monitoring for it just yet, as this will be covered in depth by a future post.

Creating a PersistentVolumeClaim in Kubernetes

We need to create a PersistentVolumeClaim.

This will trigger the CSI to create us a volume in the Cloud provider, in this case DigitalOcean, register that in Kubernetes, and then create a PersistentVolumeClaim, which we can use to persist our database data across deployments and upgrades.

In the next Step of the series, we will create a deployment repo to store all our Kubernetes configurations in.

Because we are jumping ahead we will go ahead and do that now.

Create a new directory for your deployment manifests, with a subdirectory for your database.

# First make the deployment directory 
mkdir -p deployment
cd deployment

# Then next create a database directory to store database specific manifests
mkdir -p database

Next, create a file called database/persistent-volume-claim.yml where we will store the configuration.

apiVersion: v1
kind: PersistentVolumeClaim
  name: laravel-in-kubernetes-mysql
  storageClassName: do-block-storage
    - ReadWriteOnce
      storage: 1Gi

We specify that we only want 1 GB of data for the moment. You can always resize this at a later point if necessary.

You can apply that to your Kubernetes cluster, and after a few minutes you should see the DigitalOcean volume mounted.

$ kubectl apply -f database
persistentvolumeclaim/laravel-in-kubernetes-mysql created
$ kubectl get persistentvolume
NAME                                       CAPACITY   ACCESS MODES   RECLAIM POLICY   STATUS   CLAIM                             STORAGECLASS       REASON   AGE
pvc-47da21f2-113c-4415-b7c0-08e3782ac1c3   1Gi        RWO            Delete           Bound    app/laravel-in-kubernetes-mysql   do-block-storage            16s

You can also see the volume created in the DigitalOcean UI under Volumes.

You'll notice that it is not mounted to a particular droplet just yet.

The Volume will only be mounted once an application actually tries to use the PVC.

This is intentional, as the volume will be mounted to the specific Droplet where the pod is running.

Creating Secrets for our Mysql database

We need to create a username and password which we can use with Mysql.

Mysql allows us to inject these as environment variables, but first we need to save them to a Kubernetes Secret.

Create a new random password for use in our application.

$ LC_ALL=C tr -dc 'A-Za-z0-9' </dev/urandom | head -c 20 ; echo

We also need a username which in this case we'll call laravel-in-kubernetes

Create a new file called secret.yml in the database folder which contains our Username and Password.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
  name: laravel-in-kubernetes-mysql
type: Opaque
  DB_USERNAME: "laravel-in-kubernetes"
  DB_PASSWORD: "eyeckfIIXw3KX0Rd0GHo"

A note on security

A good approach would be to not store this secret in version control as that would expose our passwords to whoever has access to the manifests.

An alternative solution might be to use Sealed Secrets or External Secrets Operator from Container Solutions

For the moment, we will use this to keep the learning simple.

So from here we can apply that secret, and make it available to our database in coming steps.

$ kubectl  apply -f database/
secret/laravel-in-kubernetes-mysql created

Creating a StatefulSet for the database

In our database folder we can create another file called statefulset.yml where we will declare our database setup, with some liveness and readiness probes, as well as resource requests for most stable running.

We use a StatefulSet so it only reschedules it when it really needs to.

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: StatefulSet
  name: laravel-in-kubernetes-mysql
    tier: backend
    layer: database
      tier: backend
      layer: database
  serviceName: laravel-in-kubernetes-mysql
  replicas: 1
        tier: backend
        layer: database
      - name: mysql
        image: mysql:5.7
        - name: mysql
          containerPort: 3306
          value: '1'
        - name: MYSQL_DATABASE
          value: laravel-in-kubernetes
        - name: MYSQL_USER
              name: laravel-in-kubernetes-mysql
              key: DB_USERNAME
        - name: MYSQL_PASSWORD
              name: laravel-in-kubernetes-mysql
              key: DB_PASSWORD
        - name: data
          mountPath: /var/lib/mysql
          subPath: mysql
            cpu: 300m
            memory: 256Mi
            - bash
            - -c
            - mysqladmin -u ${MYSQL_USER} -p${MYSQL_PASSWORD} ping
          initialDelaySeconds: 10
          periodSeconds: 5
          timeoutSeconds: 5
            - bash
            - -c
            - mysql -h -u ${MYSQL_USER} -p${MYSQL_PASSWORD} -e "SELECT 1"
          initialDelaySeconds: 5
          periodSeconds: 2
          timeoutSeconds: 1
      - name: data
          claimName: laravel-in-kubernetes-mysql

The StatefulSet will start up a single pod containing our database, mount our PersistentVolumeClaim into the container to store the data in a DigitalOcean Volume, and automatically check for Mysql Availability before allowing other pods to connect.

When we redeploy the StatefulSet for upgrades of Mysql or changing settings, our data will stay persisted, and the CSI will remount the volumes to the new nodes where our StatefulSet is running.

Database Service

The next piece we need is a Kubernetes Service so we can easily connect to our database instance.

In the database folder, create a new file called service.yml where we can specify the Service details

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: laravel-in-kubernetes-mysql
    tier: backend
    layer: database
    - protocol: TCP
      port: 3306
      targetPort: 3306

We can apply that, and in future if we'd like to connect to that database we can use mysql as the url and 3306 as the port.

$ kubectl apply -f database/
service/mysql created

Database backups

As we are mounting to a DigitalOcean volume, our data should be fairly safe.

But, there are a few things we need to take care of.

For example, if we recreate our cluster for a major version upgrade, we need to manually remount our volume into the Kubernetes cluster.

We also need to make sure if we accidentally delete the PersistentVolumeClaim, we can restore it from a data source.

For this and more on Backups, you can have a look at Kubernetes Volume Snapshots and Kubernetes Volume Data Sources. This will allow you to restore data on failure.

There are also a few tools to help alleviate a lot of this manual work called Velero you can have a look at.

Onto the next

Next, we will start deploying our application in Kubernetes.

Laravel in Kubernetes Part 6 - Deploying Laravel Web App in Kubernetes
In this post we will cover deploying our Laravel Web App inside of Kubernetes. This covers our main app and our migrations in Kubernetes. This post also assumes you have Dockerised your application, using Part 2 &amp; Part 3 from this series. If not, and you have containerised your application,